The starting point for conducting quantitative research is the view that the best way to understand basic models and relationships is through the examination of many instances (or cases).
Therefore, qualitative research is the most suited for examining the differences among a great number of instances. Sampling is used due to the fact that research is unable to test an entire focal population, due to geographic and economic reasons. A sample is a sub-group of a relevant population in a given research project. According to the basic premise of qualitative research, a sample must be random and representative of the entire population.
For demonstrative purposes one can say that through qualitative research one can achieve the following goals:
· To identify general models and relationships among various phenomenon.
· To examine the degree of relevance of theories for understanding society (in social research).
· To forecast future results of various moves (such as political, strategic-marketing moves, etc.)
Among the most common tools for collecting data in quantitative research is the survey.
The survey can be conducted in a number of ways, among which the most obvious and popular is the phone survey.
Phone survey-based on phone communication between interviewer and interviewee
Today, this is the most popular method.
A survey is usually made up of closed questions (multiple choice). The phone surveys we conduct are omnibus surveys and specialized surveys. The omnibus survey is based on a questionnaire on a variety of subjects and areas (consumption, leisure, politics, etc.)
-The survey is usually conducted as a household survey based on a random, representative sample of the entire adult population in Israel and includes 504 households (with a maximum sampling error of 4.5%). From time to time we conduct additional omnibus surveys aimed at a specific segmented population such as: youth, women etc.
An omnibus survey is shared by a number of clients which can be active in various different fields or in connected fields.
Among the advantages of the phone interview:
· Quick performance
· High rate of anonymity
Other common ways to conduct quantitative research are:
Face to face interviews (field surveys)
Based on personal unmediated communication (face-to-face) between an interviewer and an interviewee. Such an interview can take place in a meeting at the interviewee’s home/ workplace, during which the interviewee must fill out a structured questionnaire on the survey’s topic/s (sometimes while receiving explanations and clarifications form the interviewer).
What are the advantages of a face-to-face interview?
· Enables a two-way conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee and the possibility of explaining and expanding on issues and points which are not clear, which enables a better and wider understanding of the phenomenon.
· The interviewer has full control over what takes place during the interview, including the order of questions. One can raise a relatively large variety of issues.
This is a survey presented on a web-site to be filled out independently by the participants. The subjects are asked to answer questions presented on-line by marking the relevant box. The focal audience for conducting such a survey is internet users, however, since the access to the net is experiencing a steep and continuous rise over the past few years, it is likely that this method will be among the most prominent and acceptable methods of collecting data in the future.
Among the advantages of collecting data via the internet:
· Fast and cheap
· Not bound by quantity, time or space
· A combination of visual and interactive tools (color, sound, motion)
A personal questionnaire
Based on the distribution of structured questionnaires by the interviewers or the researcher him/herself to a group of subjects or to a small number of them. The distribution is often done in places where the researcher and interviewees meet, such as malls and shopping centers (when there are only a few subjects), classrooms and community centers (when there are groups). The subjects fill out the questionnaires and return them directly to the researcher/interviewer. As in the case of face-to-face interviews, here too there is a possibility of clarifying the questions.
Among the advantages of the personal questionnaire:
· Convenience in recruiting participants
· One can clarify questions which are unclear
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